Definition: Retrovirus


A type of virus that uses RNA as its genetic material. After infecting a cell, a retrovirus uses an enzyme called reverse transcriptase to convert its RNA into DNA. The retrovirus then integrates its viral DNA into the DNA of the host cell, which allows the retrovirus to replicate.


Hear the fascinating story of how retroviruses were found and proven against the vast majority of scientific opinions that deemed the idea to have been nonsense for many years! This is like science-fiction of the nasty kind, found in this Revisionist History podcast episode below!

Definition: Reverse Transcriptase

Reverse Transcriptase

A reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template, a process termed reverse transcription.


It’s a cool, but slightly complicated concept. As a result, I’ll leave it to you to read more about it in the link above, or the Revisionist History podcast episode below!

Definition: Truth Default Theory (TDT)

Truth Default Theory (TDT)

Truth Default Theory is a communication theory which predicts and explains the use of veracity and deception detection in humans. This theory gets its name from its central idea which is the truth-default state. This idea suggests that people presume others to be honest because they either don’t think of deception as a possibility during communicating or because there is insufficient evidence lending them unable to prove they are being deceived.


For MUCH more information, and some stunning examples, check out this podcast episode of Revisionist History, called the Queen of Cuba.

Definition: Suicide by Police (or Cop)

Suicide by Police (or Cop)

A suicide method in which a suicidal individual deliberately behaves in a threatening manner, with intent to provoke a lethal response from a public safety or law enforcement officer. Also known by acronyms of SBP or SBC.

From Wikipedia

According to the Revisionist History podcast below, Suicide by Police (or Cop) may make up to 10% of police shooting fatalities! In addition to the high and tragic numbers, for the disturbance it creates for society, where it’s easy to come to conclusion police used excessive force, that is a lot of disturbance! Such a situation causes the families of the person killed a lot of pain, oftentimes thinking it was murder, the officer/s and their families pain, and maybe a lot of unrest in society if it were deemed to be excessive force by police.

Now, I’m not saying police doesn’t use excessive force and that is not a problem by any means! That IS a big problem and there is a lot of justified unrest over it. However, the 10% of Suicide by Police (or Cop) doesn’t help any. It’s also a lethal protest tool if someone, in deciding to commit suicide, were intending to draw attention to the excessive police violence issue by making it seem that way through Suicide by Police (or Cop) rather than more conventional methods of suicide.

A devastating podcast not for the faint of heart, as warned at the beginning of the podcast, indeed!

Definition: Casuistry


Casuistry is a process of reasoning that seeks to resolve moral problems by extracting or extending theoretical rules from a particular case, and reapplying those rules to new instances. This method occurs in applied ethics and jurisprudence.

To put this in plain language, it’s the process of reasoning where, in a new case of a variation on something not like seen before, you take two different variations and see which one is more like, rather than rely on principles to decide, because principles were built on the past cases, whereas you have a new case on your hands.

The example given in the first of three Revisionist History podcasts by Malcolm Gladwell below, talks about using drugs to rehab from injury in baseball via the Andy Pettitte case, and whether that constituted cheating. He was caught using human growth hormone (HGH) to heal faster, to get off the Disabled List and back on the playing field sooner, but did not use it while pitching (so far as we know), and did not become a different player with better or worse stats after a bad injury, like other drug cheats we generally know of who take it to improve performance. So was Andy Pettitte “cheating” or should it be called “cheating” in the same way as, say, Barry Bonds and the steroid pumped baseball players of the steroids era? Well, consider two rather different cases of unnatural means to improve oneself in sports, where one is widely considered “cheating”, and one is not, and see whether the Andy Pettitte case falls closer to one to decide how to judge his case, rather than just rely on principles that all drug use are the same and constitutes “cheating”, despite other unnatural means of physical improvement not being so. Chosen cases were those of pitcher Tommy John and hitter Barry Bonds.

Tommy John was a pitcher who had a radical surgery (in his time) to repair his elbow that would otherwise have ended his career. He relied on an unnatural mean to heal through surgery, and played again… until the age of 46, no less! It wasn’t drugs, but the surgery that now bears his name had a more profound impact than what HGH did for Andy Pettitte to get him back a few weeks sooner, though it did not really improve Tommy Johns’ stats, either. Tommy John is not considered a cheater for his surgery.

Barry Bonds, on the other hand, used steroids as the unnatural mean to improve himself. However, he became a different player, physically, strategically, and statistically. His older body was much bigger than his younger one. He became a pure power hitter rather than one who relied on speed and some power. He had ridiculously better stats in his older years, after he started taking steroids, when it would have been very challenging just to get better numbers, never mind numbers twice as better in some categories like home runs. Barry Bonds is considered a cheater for his steroid use.

So, where does the Andy Pettitte case fit between these two? Well, casuistry doesn’t define that for you. It’s just a process, but a process to help you get a more informed answer than one where you might have simply used principles and said drug use of any kind is “cheating”, though at what drug would you draw the line since medication to heal are drugs?

To get this in more detail, listen to the first podcast below. Then listen to two other cases where casuistry is applied. The conclusions may not agree with yours, but if you use it, you’ll make more informed decisions… and you can thank the Jesuits for it from hundreds of years back!